歐盟對福島等地食物進口規定簡譯

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以下是歐盟對福島等地食物與飼料進口特殊條例(COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 322/2014of 28 March 2014;imposing special conditions governing the import of feed and food originating in or consigned from Japan following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station)的中英文對照簡要翻譯。台灣衛福部可以朝此方向作為開放之參考。也提供給大眾作為瞭解各國規定之依據。

The existing measures have been reviewed taking into account more than 85 000 occurrence data on radioactivity in feed and food other than beef and more than 232 000 occurrence data on radioactivity in beef, provided by the Japanese authorities concerning the third growing season after the accident.

現行的規定在考慮了日本官方在福島意外後的第三個產季(growing season)做了非牛肉的食物以及動物飼料85,000個檢查資料,對牛肉做了23,200個檢查資料。

Since non-compliant or significant levels of radioactivity continue to be found in feed and food originating in the prefecture of Fukushima, it is appropriate to maintain the existing requirement of sampling and analysis before export to the Union for all feed and food originating in that prefecture. However, the general exemptions, such as for alcoholic beverages and personal consignments, should continue to apply in relation to such feed and food.

因為在福島縣出產的飼料與食物中還是持續可以發現到不符合規範或明顯程度的放射性,因此要求現行要求福島縣所出產的飼料與食物出口到歐盟前必需要進行採樣與分析。然而一些通用的例外(general exemption),例如酒精類飲料或是個人托運(personal consignment)的物品則不需受此限制。

The data submitted by the Japanese authorities provide evidence that it is no longer necessary to require the sampling and analysis of feed and food originating in the prefectures of Tokyo and Kanagawa regarding the presence of radioactivity before export to the Union. On the other hand as a consequence of the finding of non-compliance in certain edible wild plants originating from the prefectures Akita, Yamagata and Nagano, it is appropriate to require sampling and analysis of those edible wild plants originating from those prefectures.

由日本官方提供的資料顯示由東京以及神奈川縣生產的食物以及飼料在出口至歐盟前不再需要提供採樣以及分析報告。另一方面,由於在秋田縣、山形縣、長野縣發現某些可食用的野生植物有超標的現象,因此由這三縣出產的這些可食用植物在出口至歐盟前必須要提供採樣以及分析報告

As regards the prefectures of Gunma, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Miyagi, Saitama, Iwate and Chiba, it is currently required to sample and analyse mushrooms, tea, fishery products, certain edible wild plants, certain vegetables, certain fruits, rice and soybeans and the processed and derived products thereof, before export to the Union. The same requirements apply to compound foodstuffs containing more than 50 % of those products. The occurrence data for the third growing season provide evidence that for a significant number of those feed and food commodities, it is appropriate to no longer require sampling and analysis before export to the Union.

目前規定由群馬、茨城、櫪木、宮城、埼玉縣、岩手縣、千葉縣出產的蕈類、茶、於產品、特定可食用植物、特定蔬菜、特定水果、米、黃豆以及由這些食物產生的處理過產品,在出口之前依然需提供採樣與分析報告。食品如果50%以上使用了上述的原料,也需要提供採樣與分析報告。但是經由第三個產季所提供的提供的資料顯示,上述的要求將不再實施,上述這些食物與飼料將不再需要提供採樣與分析報告。

The occurrence data from the third growing season provide evidence that it is appropriate to maintain the requirement for sampling and analysis before export to the Union for mushrooms originating from Shizuoka, Yamanashi, Nagano, Niigata and Aomori.

由第三個生長季所獲得的資料顯示,維持現行要求靜岡縣、山梨縣、長野縣、新潟縣、青森縣所出產的蕈類在出口到歐盟前應提供採樣與分析報告是合理的。

It is appropriate to present the provisions of this Regulation in a manner that prefectures of which the same feed and food has to be sampled and analysed before export to the Union are grouped together, in order to facilitate the application of this Regulation.

為了讓本規定可以被適當執行,被要求要進行採樣與分析的縣應將需要採樣與分析的同一種飼料或食物在出口到歐盟前集中起來一次採樣。

Tea from the third growing season has not been found to be contaminated by radioactivity. It is therefore appropriate to no longer require sampling and analysis of tea, originating from prefectures other than Fukushima, before export to the Union. In the prefecture Fukushima, tea is only produced in small quantities and destined for local consumption and not for export. In the very unlikely case that tea from Fukushima is exported to the Union, the Japanese authorities have provided guarantees that the relevant consignments would be sampled and analysed and accompanied by the declaration providing evidence that the consignment has been sampled and analysed and has been found in compliance with the applicable maximum levels. Consignments of tea originating from prefectures other than Fukushima should normally be accompanied by a declaration stating that the tea is originating from a prefecture other than Fukushima. Given that tea from those prefectures is regularly exported to the Union, this constitutes a considerable administrative burden. Taking into account that tea has not been found contaminated during the third growing season after the accident, the unlikely case that tea is exported from Fukushima and the guarantees provided by the Japanese authorities, it is appropriate to no longer require a declaration of origin for tea originating from prefectures other than Fukushima, in order to reduce the administrative burden.

由第三個生長季的結果來看沒有任何茶被污染。因此維持現行規定即除了福島以外的地方出口茶葉到歐盟都不需要提供採樣與分析的報告。在福島的茶葉產量很少,且僅供當地消費而不外銷。在罕見的狀況下如果有茶葉要出口到歐盟時,日本官方已經提供保證這些托運物會被採樣與分析,且會提供報告證明這些托運物已經過托運與分析,並且符合容許的最大劑量。由其他非福島縣托運的茶一般來說應提供聲明書表示其非福島產物。而其他縣出產的茶定期會出口到歐盟造成了相當大的管理負擔。考慮到第三季的報告指出沒有茶葉發現被污染且福島的茶不太可能出口以及日本官方提供的保證。因此不再要求其他非福島縣出產的茶附上產地證明是適當的,且減少了管理的負擔。

The controls performed at import show that the special conditions provided for by Union law are correctly implemented by the Japanese authorities and non- compliance has not occurred for more than two years. Therefore, it is appropriate to further reduce the frequency of controls at import.

進口的管制顯示歐盟所制訂的特別限制是被日本官方正確地施行且已有兩年沒有發現任何不符合規定的狀況。因此,減少進口管制措施是適當的。

It is appropriate to foresee a next review of the provisions when the results of sampling and analysis on the presence of radioactivity of feed and food of the fourth growing season after the accident will be available, i.e. by 31 March 2015.

目前預計下一次重新檢視相關規定將會是在2015年03月31日,第四次生產季節的採樣與分析結果出來後。

另外,歐盟比照日本國內對日本輸出食品與飼料的銫-134與銫-137總和劑量有所規定,整理如後:

關於食品的銫-134與銫-137總和劑量:

項目 劑量(Bq/kg)
嬰幼兒食品 50
牛奶與牛奶為基礎的飲料 50
除了礦泉水以及類似飲料例如未發酵茶葉做的飲料外的食物 100
礦泉水以及類似飲料例如未發酵茶葉做的飲料 10

關於飼料的-134與銫-137總和劑量:

項目 劑量(Bq/kg)
牛與馬用飼料 100
豬飼料 80
家禽飼料 160
魚飼料 40

其他相關規定尚有:

  1. 牛奶與乳製品、礦泉水、及類似飲料在2012年3月31號之前生產或處理者含放射性銫量不得超過200貝克/公斤。
  2. 米製品、黃豆以及黃豆製品以外的食物在2012年3月31號之前生產或處理者含放射性銫量不得超過500貝克/公斤。
  3. 米製品在2012年9月30號之前生產或處理者含放射性銫量不得超過500貝克/公斤。
  4. 黃豆在2012年12月31號之前收割且提供至市場販售者含放射性銫量不得超過500貝克/公斤。
  5. 黃豆製品在2012年12月31號之前製造或處理者含放射性銫量不得超過500貝克/公斤。

延伸閱讀

食物的放射性活度
支持用核 - 輻射食品除魅 什麼是半衰期


作者: 張中一
核能流言終結者成員
IE BUSINESS SCHOOL臺灣校友會創會會長
專長為網路資通訊系統架構

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